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The following is the bibliography from an AEI report on seismic airguns.

From an report on seismic airguns

Andrew, R., M.Dzieciuch, B. Howe, and J.Mercer (2002). Ocean ambient sound: Comparing the 1960s with the 1990s for a receiver off the California coast. Acoustic Research Letters Online 3(2), April 2002, p65-70.

Berger, Elliott (2003). Life Can be Loud.

Caldwell (2002). Does air-gun noise harm marine mammals? The Leading Edge, January 2002, p75-78.

Caldwell, Dragoset (2000). A brief overview of seismic air-gun arrays. The Leading Edge, August 2000, p898-902.

Cato, D.H. (1997). Features of ambient noise in shallow water. Proceedings of International Conference on Shallow Water Acoustics (SWAC’97), pp385-90.

Dellagiarino, G., P. Fulton, K. Meekins, D. Zinzer (2000). Geological and geophysical data acquisition: outer continental shelf through 1999. Minerals Management Service OCS Report 2000-07, 37p.

Department of Trade and Industry, UK (2003). Position paper on the mitigation and management of oil and gas marine seismic surveys. September 2003.

Engås, A., Løkkeborg, S., Ona, E. and Soldal, A.V. (1996). Effects of seismic shooting on local abundance and catch rates of cod (Gadus Morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sc. 53(10):2238-2249

Epifanio, C, Potter, J, Deane, G, Readhead, M. (1999) Imaging the ocean with ambient noise: the ORB experiments. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106(6), December 1999, pp3211-3225

Gausland, I. Impact of seismic surveys on marine life. The Leading Edge, August 2000, p903-905.

Goold J.C. & Fish P.J. (1998). Broadband spectra of seismic survey air-gun emissions, with reference to dolphin auditory thresholds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103(4), 2177-2184

Harwood, Wilson (2001) The implications of developments on the Atlantic Frontier for marine mammals. Continental Shelf Research 21 (2001), p1073-1093

Hoffman, Penrose, McMahon (2000) Acoustic Propagation Prediction in Shallow Water. Australian Acoustical Society Conference.

Jepson, et al (2003). Gas bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature 425, October 9, 2003, 575-576.

Ketten, D. (2002) Ocean noise as a stressor of marine mammals. ONR/NOAA. Presentation at the Florida Marine Mammal Health Conference, April 2002.

Ketten, Darlene. (2001) Testimony before the US House of Representatives Resources Committee, October 11, 2001.

Malakoff, D. 2001. A roaring debate over ocean noise. Science, 291. pp 576-578

Malme, C.I., Miles, P.R., Miller, G.W., Richardson, W.J., Roseneau, D.G., Thomson, D.H. and Greene, C.R. 1989. Analysis and ranking of the acoustic disturbance potential of petroleum industry activities and other sources of noise in the environment of marine mammals in Alaska. Final Report No. 6945 to the US Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, AK. BBN Systems and Technologies Corp.
[Available from].

McCauley, Fewtrell, Popper (2002). High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113 (1), 638-642.

McCauley, Fewtrell, Duncan, Jenner, Jenner, Penrose, Prince, Adhitya, Murdoch, McCabe (2001) Marine seismic surveys--a study of environmental implications. APPEA Journal 2000: 692-708
(more concise reporting of results from APPEA report listed below)

McCauley, et al (Robert D. McCauley, Jane Fewtrell, Alec J. Duncan, Curt Jenner, Micheline-Nicole Jenner, John D. Penrose, Robert I.T. Prince, Anita Adhitya, Julie Murdoch, Kathryn McCabe, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University of Technology), 2000. Marine seismic surveys: analysis and propagation of air-gun signals; and effects of air-gun exposure on humpback whales, sea turtles, fishes and squid Prepared for Australian Petroleum Production Exploration Association.

McCauley, Jenner, Bannister, Cato, Duncan. (2000) Blue whale calling in the Rottnest trench, Western Australia, and low frequency sea noise. Australian Acoustical Society Conference.

Mellinger, D. and J. Barlow (2003): Future directions for acoustic marine mammal surveys: Stock assessment and habitat use. Report of a workshop held in La Jolla, CA, 20-22 November 2002, NOAA/OAR Special Report, NOAA/PMEL Contribution No. 2557, 37pp.

Minerals Management Service (2003a). Exploration activities in the eastern sale area: eastern planning area, gulf of mexico OCS: Programmatic Environmental Assessment. OCS EIS/EA MMS 2003-008, 212p.

Minerals Management Service (2003b). Eastern Gulf of Mexico Multisale Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 4: Environmental and Socio-economic consequences.

Minerals Management Service (2002). Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2003-2007, Central and Western Planning Areas, Final Environmental Impact Statement. OCS EIS/EA MMS 2002-052. Vol. I, 674pp, Vol II, 180pp.

Moore, S. and Clarke, J. (2002) Potential impact of offshore human activities on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) J. Cetacean Res. Manage. 4(1): 19-25

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Biological Opinion – Minerals Management Service’s Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Multi-Lease Sale, November 2002.

National Research Council, Ocean Studies Board. Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals. The National Academies Press, 2003. 147p (prepublication copy)

National Research Council, Ocean Studies Board. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound: Progress Since 1994. National Academy Press, 2000. 146p.

National Research Council, Ocean Studies Board. Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals. National Academy Press, 1994. 75p.

Penrose, J.P., McCauley, R.D., Duncan, A.J., Woods, A., Hoffman, J., McLaughlan, D., Sherlock, M., Cato, D.H., Vosmer, T. (1998). Proposed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Cape Leeuwin Hydrophone site: Seanoise measurements June-September 1998; Shipping
movements and modelling of nearby ship noise into site. Report prepared for the Preparatory Commission, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation, by CMST, Curtin University, WA. Report C98-25

S. Pidcock, C. Burton and M. Lunney. (2003) The Potential Sensitivity of Marine Mammals to Mining and Exploration in the Great Australian Bight Marine Park Marine Mammal Protection Zone: An independent review and risk assessment report to Environment Australia.

Potter, J. and DeLory, E. (1998) Noise sources in the sea and the impact for those who live there. Conference presentation: Acoustics and Vibration Asia'98, Singapore, November 1998.

Potter, J.R. and Chitre, M.A. (1999) Ambient noise imaging in warm shallow seas; second order moment and model-based imaging algorithms. J. Acous. Soc. Am. 106(6), December 1999. pp3201-3210
Lay language version: Could marine mammals use ambient noise imaging techniques?

Richardson, Greene, Malme, Thomson (1995). Marine Mammals and Noise. Academic Press, 576p.

Smith, D. (1999). Cruise report: Ewing 9901, January 30, 1999-February 24, 1999 Hydrophone deployment. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute publication.

Stocker, Michael. (2004, scheduled) Hear Where We Are, manuscript in publication. University of California Press

Thompson, Wilson, Grellier, Hammond (2000) Combining power analysis and population viability analysis to compare traditional and precautionary approaches to conservation of coastal cetaceans. Conservation Biology 14:5 (1253-1263)

Turnpenny, et al (2002), Science review report - Results of analysis and discussion - Report to the ad hoc working group of the Cape Breton public review, Canada – Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board (CNSOPB)
November 29th, 2002.

Web resources

Aquatics Bioacoustics Laboratory, University of Maryland
Hearing thresholds for fish:
Research summary: effects of intense sound on fish:

Changing Climate for Offshore Surveys (or, No Seismic Sound Source is Small Enough), USGS Soundwaves newsletter, August 1999. Report on the regulatory and mitigation process and costs for a geology survey off the California coast using a small (40 cubic inch) airgun.

Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education (CORE)
Parent of NOPP and

Dolman, Sarah, Owen, Daniel E.C.M. Parsons, Chris, Simmonds, Mark P. Swift, René, Weilgart, Lindy, Oceans of Noise, Whale & Dolphin Conservation Society, May 2003.

Lithoprobe ESCOOT (Eastern Canadian Shield Onshore-Offshore Transect) 1996. Web site describing a geologic seismic survey in northeastern Canada. Seismic source was an airgun array (6 x 16.4 litre), fired from CCGS Hudson at 60 s intervals (ca. 130 m). Includes maps showing results down to 40km deep.

Maurice Ewing photos of airguns in action
looking aft at 20-gun array
closeup of bubbles on surface from firing guns
(another shot of an airgun array on board a ship):

Minerals Management Service Gulf of Mexico Region website

National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP)
Document: Toward a US Plan for an Integrated, Sustained Ocean Observing System Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Coordination of regional observing systems.

Office of Naval Research Environmental Consequences of Underwater Sound (ECOUS) conference report and abstracts

Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA.
Tutorial on ocean noise. Includes good info on technical noise measurement issues.
Airgun sample

UK database of oil and gas exploration; can generate maps of historic activity

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